# flagmaker (re)

Challenge file

To run the challenge properly, we need to echo the input to a pipe to the binary.

$echo wgmy | ./flagmaker starting up the flag maker engine... Initiating flag launching sequence... ciphertext (hex): DD38593C9D plaintext: wgmy Flag launching sequence failed! Otherwise, it will just get stuck here:$ ./flagmaker

starting up the flag maker engine...
Initiating flag launching sequence...

### Static Analysis

I loaded the program in Ghidra to analyse it. main is not very big, but anyways it can be split into a few parts. Let’s slowly go through each part.

#### Part 1: dmi stuff

int main()
{
if (s_03e7e303-8feb-c4fc-771c-3b13e8f2_0010e240[0] == '\0') {
FUN_001027a9(s_03e7e303-8feb-c4fc-771c-3b13e8f2_0010e240);
}
FUN_0010288f(&DAT_0010e2e0,s_03e7e303-8feb-c4fc-771c-3b13e8f2_0010e240);
if (s_e39c79ff9da51918_0010e270[0] == '\0') {
FUN_001028f9(s_e39c79ff9da51918_0010e270);
}
FUN_00102a58(&DAT_0010e2c0,s_e39c79ff9da51918_0010e270);

Here, I see a GUID string being passed into some functions. Looking into these functions, I see references to strings like:

• "/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_uuid"
• "dmidecode -s system-uuid"
• "/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_serial"
• "dmidecode -s system-serial-number"
• "/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_serial"

All are related to DMI. I’m not familiar with this, but seems like it is related to SMBIOS (System Management BIOS). Not too sure what this is for, but I’ll just keep this in mind for now, and move on.

#### Part 2: Decryption

Next, there’s this series of function calls.

sVar3 = strlen(PTR_DAT_0010e288);
local_440 = malloc(sVar3);
sVar3 = strlen(PTR_DAT_0010e288);
local_438 = malloc(sVar3);
OPENSSL_init_crypto(2,0);
OPENSSL_init_crypto(0xc,0);
OPENSSL_init_crypto(0x80,0);
sVar3 = strlen(PTR_DAT_0010e288);
local_440 = (void *)FUN_00102d21(PTR_DAT_0010e288,sVar3 & 0xffffffff);        // [1]
local_44c = FUN_00102c15(local_440,DAT_0010e220,&DAT_0010e2e0,&DAT_0010e2c0,local_438);       // [2]

Looking into FUN_00102d21 ([1]), I see the BIO_* family of functions like BIO_new, BIO_new_mem_buf, BIO_read. BIO is openssl’s I/O library, used to pass buffers from user code to openssl library for abstraction purposes.

In FUN_00102c15 ([2]), I see the following calls:

1. EVP_CIPHER_CTX_new
2. EVP_aes_256_cbc
3. EVP_DecryptInit_ex
4. EVP_DecryptUpdate
5. EVP_DecryptFinal_ex
6. EVP_CIPHER_CTX_free

So AES decryption is happening here in this function. Also, usually BIO_* functions come right before EVP_* functions, being familiar with this pattern is helpful at identifying decryption routines quickly.

Renaming some stuff to make things clearer:

bio = malloc(len);

len = strlen(encrypted);
local_438 = malloc(len);

OPENSSL_init_crypto(2,0);
OPENSSL_init_crypto(0xc,0);
OPENSSL_init_crypto(0x80,0);

len = strlen(encrypted);
bio = (void *)bio_setup(encrypted, len & 0xffffffff);

local_44c = decrypt(bio, DAT_0010e220, &DAT_0010e2e0, &DAT_0010e2c0, local_438);

At the moment, I’m not too concerned about what is being decrypted and what the result is yet, so I note this down and continue.

#### Part 3: Fork and stuff

After decryption, there’s code calling mkfifo (variables renamed for readability):

pid = getpid();
sprintf((char *)&fifo_name,"/tmp/%i",(ulong)pid);
result = mkfifo((char *)&fifo_name,0x1b6);
if (result != 0) {
unlink((char *)&fifo_name);
result = mkfifo((char *)&fifo_name,0x1b6);
if (result != 0) {
printf("Aborting: could not create named pipe %s\n",&fifo_name);
exit(1);
}
}

According to the mkfifo manpage:

mkfifo() makes a FIFO special file with name pathname. mode specifies the FIFO’s permissions.

It’s a file that is opened on both ends (input and output), and any process can open it to read/write to it. Well, sounds just like any other file. The benefit of using FIFO files is that it is never written to disk, so better performance in certain cases (reference).

Anyways, in the case of this binary, I just looked at it like a normal file, didn’t care too much other than that.

Also, in the code, mkfifo is given 0x1b6 in the 2nd argument, which is the mode for opening the file. The number doesn’t make much sense, but it should be just some enum. We can use strace to see the syscalls called by this program, if we’re interested in the value (although it usually doesn’t matter too much unless something totally unexpected happens).

$strace ./flagmaker ... getpid() = 10460 mknod("/tmp/10460", S_IFIFO|0666) = 0 ... Above we see getpid followed by mknod, which matches the order of calls by the code we saw. But why mknod instead of mkfifo? This is because mkfifo is a C library function while mknod is a Linux syscall, and strace only logs syscalls. We see that mknod is called with the S_IFIFO enum which makes sense since mkfifo was called. The 0666 that follows should mean RW permissions. These details aren’t really important and I actually didn’t care about them while reversing. Just noting them down for completeness sake. Moving on, we see the program forks. From this point on, there are 2 processes running, the child process and the parent process. There are 3 possible types of return values for fork: • -1 - failed • 0 - we are in the child process • positive value - we are in the parent process, and the return value is the child’s process ID The child doesn’t need to get the parent’s PID as return value, because it can call getppid to do so. fork_pid = fork(); if (fork_pid == -1) { // failed fork puts("Error forking interpreter."); } else { if (fork_pid == 0) { // child ... } else { // parent ... } } The parent’s code is shorter, so I looked at it first. else { fifo_fd = open(fifo_name, 1); write(fifo_fd, local_438, local_44c); close(fifo_fd); } So it’s writing to the FIFO file. Recall that earlier local_438 was passed to the decrypt function above, and local_44c was the return value. It is reasonable to assume that local_438 contains the decrypted bufffer, and local_44c contains its length. I also verified it afterwards by looking into the decrypt function. On the other hand, looking at the child process (renamed variables for better readability): if (pid == 0) { command._0_8_ = 0; command._8_4_ = 0; command._12_2_ = 0; command[14] = '\0'; exec_argv_ = exec_argv; exec_argv[0] = "bash"; exec_argv[1] = "-c"; sprintf(command, "source %s", &fifo_name); argv_ = argv; argc_ = argc; exec_argv_[2] = command; exec_argv_[3] = *argv; if (argc == 1) { local_408[0] = (char *)0x0; } else { for (i = 1; i < argc_; i = i + 1) { exec_argc[i + 3] = argv_[i]; } exec_argc[i + 3] = (char *)0x0; } fflush(stdout); execvp("bash", exec_argv); puts("Interpreter crashed."); } Here we see some notable things: 1. execvp("bash", exec_argv); 1. This process will later be running bash, with some arguments set by the current process (child). 2. With this call, we can deduce that the 2nd argument is an array of strings (as stated by the documentation of execvp). 2. sprintf(command, "source %s", &fifo_name); 1. The format string strongly hints that this is the command passed to bash later. 2. Especially since "bash" and "-c" are the strings that come before it in the argument list for execvp. 3. We can expect bash to be called with the arguments above, bash -c "source /tmp/<pid>". At this point, we can see that this process will soon run a shell script contained in the FIFO file. That is where the flag checking logic is contained. So, we need to extract the shell script that is written to the FIFO file by the parent. #### Part 4: Cleanup Here’s the remaining code for cleaning things up, which is really not important, but just here for completeness. unlink(fifo_name); free(bio); free(decrypted); waitpid(pid, &result, 0); return 0; ### Interpreter In order to extract the code written to the FIFO, one good way is to use GDB to set a breakpoint right after the file was written to. 00003f71 468 e8 ca e6 CALL <EXTERNAL>::write ff ff This binary is compiled with PIE on, so I use the pie break command by GEF. Since the contents of the file are in$rsi, I just do x/s $rsi to dump the file contents. And I get the following code: #!/bin/bash #wgmy{fakeflag} oXePdudtpsYaUqiTsvJcvtgEuzDTiNZrxvUDvzxfOABOXnWxJywAkHSFoMvnLIoqXrIzudUSHiWdyMvhZvtBzJZdNFDbZumTtMBO="XoFkeEpMmBMXKNhQEAirSqHGPSMGXTxABZQxTJXLkSuRrEVKANlDcFbOgaCxTFrrSyqjvUQPnmCAYvpofRbJVSTtnYiaOCwYNZhU"; DCsdiTzmAWiSLTVwGdULBGAKcRTSNyXzsVtrBwjNFedTIoLWhDUKcyguyyWIYEBTdxmjlWovoaIypseNtCTJqLVOxtUendAdrImr="wMYbOjumSacDthPesvCHPQgcQxVlqMZgGiMZHFPoIUVorwPmmHEtGwmNzuzUDArAXgXzXknehmzLGukEBCKhSrFEXSDepPDfEYtu"; ... PqUfxGjNOXvQMGyONWnVzZQFaLjIfsJIUXuZLwZhiwzRedlbTFKgoldexofwTgtoqztvCXrQlYlEwtXptohITEhgNjJxcrdgrcvu=""; IeUouJEbKQKmvoXIAEgOjPnpXuqBZEcZwIvuLnUoTkMvDVcMTmPSXQEohwjCcFNrMyRbTwFpYBolIKWqhWcCGfJvbPCqJktyVBra=$(eval "$iHPaTqJxTbxmkvPCmSsRHNuaCJCdxMextIRBsGGkiFJVtGtdgOEHWMeiaYjrtcTPYpNexWavqMMnIogjAskkQHwaLaDFBrtlaAXQ$NXlVhgwGFHtNwpZvfCeKvmVEInIWdPLfkSrkHNQEVXhoaJdjzruCAljtqtjotgsNgaBRltBTOrKwdNpbEymKnsQZophyKwsSuGEw$BuGOClwGIsKErdKwgkfaJIUoTMqBgAEuyYykPYSkGUdiqkbuWSmKlhuWoZEeVLPaeloDYZHrBNTpxkIfRokkwIoZhCXAIjlebtXg$nANAiRZMluJPwrDmJXVJxDpkdIyYDtNidZfpAkKYtbatgUZtKMAhWlLPUdDtIvtGBgpvoqXgkcOZAHyqKpgegLEVOIxsTPylqOyX$YmXmADNUJnCCFYFtGEqxeANClYTGTptBhQWgmwtyYECLOrDrcFisFsJNPmxXttExEZWyqbKTayOAMyLBWimxvLDsbgrDopkBCFsX$tXdNfNAvEfMSRiflVLsssXYnHZvPEYuEbDIfKkEvuFZJspXSSSSmhrGLMbyRTrzoousnzieMNCUatRIOZUutfMYdBFxSiAtLFAhc$NXlVhgwGFHtNwpZvfCeKvmVEInIWdPLfkSrkHNQEVXhoaJdjzruCAljtqtjotgsNgaBRltBTOrKwdNpbEymKnsQZophyKwsSuGEw$jBQPrACikOnFetquFhFuJADpkJYDkOcRxnmdGZuVPXzhNbEFrRDlQiaexmmQKIVIxdwQBuJXsVnMVLehLPnjPRqKiREDVbTcbIKt$iHPaTqJxTbxmkvPCmSsRHNuaCJCdxMextIRBsGGkiFJVtGtdgOEHWMeiaYjrtcTPYpNexWavqMMnIogjAskkQHwaLaDFBrtlaAXQ$HXgOinAkfKiOLyRTwIuZntVONhuTspOunIKyxzerUgEFfsZNxAmJOnYsQsAMsJRJYytBTzjSccTmdEzrEMjkHziSsoJqGidicise$PqUfxGjNOXvQMGyONWnVzZQFaLjIfsJIUXuZLwZhiwzRedlbTFKgoldexofwTgtoqztvCXrQlYlEwtXptohITEhgNjJxcrdgrcvu$eRMfCTdAUETFQotxXrGeVAecLRiexuvbHkOBrYnJODGzCcNWdXsECdcpGAyHnHEGXQETRxuFJnchBofIcyKgxqpClTfOzGgEOJVZ$NXlVhgwGFHtNwpZvfCeKvmVEInIWdPLfkSrkHNQEVXhoaJdjzruCAljtqtjotgsNgaBRltBTOrKwdNpbEymKnsQZophyKwsSuGEw$LCwufSJHfbbfcCoHnWnuInsZzxQFtmmYvUseWTQesiMFfkxGobcRSoNOJciyXtbapcorJzfZVuCqCoGAyUbaqYopmOkslvxZYsFD$nANAiRZMluJPwrDmJXVJxDpkdIyYDtNidZfpAkKYtbatgUZtKMAhWlLPUdDtIvtGBgpvoqXgkcOZAHyqKpgegLEVOIxsTPylqOyX$QowYPStjYiAFkoRypHbbxojkFUYpCeRsMRtzfOkDqbhmjoMyYzsqMErIqjdkWkEvMLrvRxirLYoDOFsQHZWBpKmVAAsaoZVtisdP$ZeBDEsGcNquygsskARcDEaXtGwRDWNFGNrOEpeoQOOnUDSAYeUfJAsNbPTuWBHaPJAUYOBUnZdmuUgHxvmzZTXdTNZjptKQihfCI$PqUfxGjNOXvQMGyONWnVzZQFaLjIfsJIUXuZLwZhiwzRedlbTFKgoldexofwTgtoqztvCXrQlYlEwtXptohITEhgNjJxcrdgrcvu");
eval "$OqgaqMOsTruvyVZJTgiWVDClvZqNKXAjQKsAhghwVlJJOfmuKJzbfvCGHeVBxepPtqEtQOYEmBDNFgzRtgzYRHbrHOeuJTLqBDcC$IeUouJEbKQKmvoXIAEgOjPnpXuqBZEcZwIvuLnUoTkMvDVcMTmPSXQEohwjCcFNrMyRbTwFpYBolIKWqhWcCGfJvbPCqJktyVBra$iHPaTqJxTbxmkvPCmSsRHNuaCJCdxMextIRBsGGkiFJVtGtdgOEHWMeiaYjrtcTPYpNexWavqMMnIogjAskkQHwaLaDFBrtlaAXQ$nANAiRZMluJPwrDmJXVJxDpkdIyYDtNidZfpAkKYtbatgUZtKMAhWlLPUdDtIvtGBgpvoqXgkcOZAHyqKpgegLEVOIxsTPylqOyX"

Nasty. But notice at the last line, it runs eval on code stored in some variable. I just change the eval to echo, to see what’s the code being executed.

And I got the following:

#!/bin/bash
################################################################################
# file:         rc4.sh
# created:      15-05-2011
# modified:     2014 Sep 04
#
# https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/RC4
#
# NOTES:
#   - ord() & chr() from http://mywiki.wooledge.org/BashFAQ/071
#
# TODO:
#   - todo figure out a better way for all the conversions
#   - optimize =)
#   - improve the s-box drawing thingie to only print changed bytes
#
################################################################################
set -u
shopt -s nocasematch
declare     TITLE="rc4.sh -- the RC4 stream cipher"
declare -a  S=()
declare -ai KEY=()
declare -i  KEYLENGTH
# Two 8-bit index-pointers
...

Scrolling through the code, I see 2 interesting parts. I can ask use the script to decrypt

options:
-d            decrypt (the default is to encrypt)
-h            this help
-k key        key
you can provide the key as hex by prefixing with '0x',
it is otherwise interpreted as ASCII.

-x            debug mode

and also here I see the expected ciphertext

if [ ${CIPHERTEXT^^} == "DD38593CEC368BE7DFC709E59A4878F7C462D6BD6E128515B39CCE1E94012814C056821E976D" ] then printf "Flag has been launch!!!! Submit your flag\n\n" else printf "Flag launching sequence failed!\n\n" fi Only thing left is to run the script with -d and give it the ciphertext. And here’s the flag:$ echo -n "DD38593CEC368BE7DFC709E59A4878F7C462D6BD6E128515B39CCE1E94012814C056821E976D" | ./rc4.sh -d

starting up the flag maker engine...
Initiating flag launching sequence...

plaintext:      wgmy{57da7e9e691d02a99b6116be6156927b}